The body is covered with black and yellow mottling with a dark line running down the 'spine'. In addition, centipedes are relatively long-lived when compared to insects. While a bite to an adult human is usually very painful and may cause severe swelling, chills, fever, and weakness, it is unlikely to be fatal. Time of development of the embryo to hatching is highly variable and may take from one to a few months. These limbs, or maxillipeds, end in sharp claws and include venom glands that help the animal to kill or paralyze its prey. Laboratory feeding trials support that they will feed as generalists, taking almost anything that is soft-bodied and in a reasonable size range. [30] They represent the survivors of a once diverse clade. Geophilomorphs lose water less rapidly than lithobiomorphs, though they have a greater surface area to volume ratio. [30] Their geographic range is restricted to Tasmania and New Zealand. Their antennae have 17 or more segments. They normally have a drab coloration combining shades of brown and red. Centipedes (from the New Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and the Latin word pes, pedis, "foot") are predatory arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda (Ancient Greek χεῖλος, kheilos, lip, and New Latin suffix -poda, "foot", describing the forcipules) of the subphylum Myriapoda, an arthropod group which also includes millipedes and other multi-legged creatures. The embryonic cuticle on second maxilliped has an. Most scutigeromorphs from other parts of the world belong to the Scutigeridae, which includes two subfamilies, the Scutigerinae and Thereuoneminae. Fifteen pairs of legs appear crop up around the entire body. Centipedes are elongated metameric creatures with one pair of legs per body segment. The centipede favours damp environments and so is rarely found in the hot and dry desert regions. Each pair of legs is slightly longer than the pair immediately in front of it, ensuring that they do not overlap, so reducing the chance that they will collide with each other while moving swiftly. The first postcephalic appendage is modified to venom claws. However, these eyes are only capable of discerning light and dark, and have no true vision. The Geophilomorpha, commonly known as soil centipedes, bear upwards of 27 leg-bearing segments. The Craterostigmomorpha only have one phase of anamorphosis, with embryos having 12 pairs, and moultees 15. Capability, Shape, Texture/Pattern, Benefits, Dangers. Geophilomorph centipedes can secrete sticky substances that generate toxic hydrogen cyanide and benzoic acid from microscopic glands on their undersides. The body is covered with black and yellow mottling with a dark line running down the 'spine'. They are often seen in street vendors’ stalls in large cities, including Donghuamen and Wangfujing markets in Beijing. [31] They have a distinct body plan; their anamorphosis comprises a single stage: in their first moult, they grow from having 12 segments to having 15. Two families are included, the Henicopidae and Lithobiidae. The fossil record of centipedes extends back to 430 million years ago, during the Late Silurian. The more derived groups bear a plurality of spiracular openings on their sides, and are termed the Pleurostigmomorpha. [6], Many species of centipedes lack eyes, but some possess a variable number of ocelli, which are sometimes clustered together to form true compound eyes. The eyes have a fixed number of four ocelli on each side in the family Scolopendridae and one ocellus per side in the genus Mimops (family Mimopidae), but other families are blind. Examination of centipede gut contents suggests that plant material is an unimportant part of their diets, although centipedes have been observed to eat vegetable matter when starved during laboratory experiments. Geophilomorph centipedes have been used to argue for the developmental constraint of evolution; that the evolvability of a trait, the number of segments in the case of geophilomorph centipedes, was constrained by the mode of development. It is known to eat lizards, frogs, birds, mice, and even bats, catching them in midflight,[8] as well as rodents and spiders. The centipede is a carnivorous animal and is therefore a pure meat-eater. The Scutigeromorpha are anamorphic, reaching 15 leg-bearing segments in length. The common house centipede lives as long as five to six years, and hence that is many legs. They are the only centipede group to retain their original compound eyes, within which a crystalline layer analogous to that seen in cheliceratesand insects can be observed. The only 2 known amphibious centipedes, Scolopendra cataracta and Scolopendra paradoxa belong to this order.[14][15][33][34]. Water regulation is an important aspect of centipede ecology, since they lose water rapidly in dry conditions and are found in moist microhabitats. This custom is allegedly part of the traditional Chinese medicine. Similarly, lithobiomorph centipedes secrete a sticky substance from glands in the rear-most two pairs of legs.[17]. Today, centipedes are abundant and exist in many harsh habitats. Instead, its eyes have a single ocellus or a group of ocelli. [13] Springtails may provide a large proportion of lithobiomorph diets.