It takes an inferolateral course deep to sternocleidomastoid and gradually becomes tendinous as it passes over the internal jugular vein (within the carotid sheath). Quiz yourself to reinforce what you have learned about the hyoid bone. The anterior belly continues from the intermediate tendon, courses deep to mylohyoid and inserts in the digastric fossa of the posterior surface of the mandible. Ligament Attachments. There is a vertical median ridge located in the midline of the body that rarely projects to the lower surface. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. 2020 There are three main ligaments that attach to the hyoid bone – stylohyoid, thyrohyoid and hyoepiglottic. Kenhub. Genta, Pedro R. et al. Exercises for swallowing function m… Lorenzo Crumbie MBBS, BSc This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. There are three main ligaments that attach to the hyoid bone - stylohyoid, thyrohyoid and hyoepiglottic. It travels anteroinferiorly toward its insertion in the intermediate tendon at the junction of the greater cornu and body of the hyoid bone. The hyoid bone can be divided into three component parts: the body of the hyoid, the greater cornua, and the lesser cornua. Most of its fibers pass downwards and medially, joining in the midline with the fibers from the opposite side, all the way from the symphysis of the mandible, to the body of the hyoid bone. The digastric muscle has a posterior and an anterior belly. Mylohyoid is a thin pair of diaphragm-like muscle that forms the floor of the mouth. The tongue-pharyngeal block as a whole obtained from 50 cadavers were used. The body is situated at an oblique angle with the anterior end pointing superiorly and the posterior end pointing inferiorly. The cranial part of the spinal-accessory nerve (CN XI), via the pharyngeal plexus, innervates the middle constrictor. Is our article missing some key information? Genioglossus is an extrinsic muscle of the tongue that has its origins from a short tendon at the superior mental spine of the mandible (near the symphysis menti). Each mylohyoid muscle has its origin at the mylohyoid line. The muscle elevates the floor of the mouth and raises the hyoid bone during swallowing. The muscle is able to depress and retract the chin and facilitate opening of the mouth through innervation from the facial nerve (posterior belly) and the nerve to mylohyoid (anterior belly). By visiting this site you agree to the foregoing terms and conditions. Read more. Bilateral contraction generates a concave appearance of the tongue, with the midline depressed. Cookies help us deliver the best experience to all our users. Furthermore, it plays an integral role in the movement of the upper airway and depression of the hyoid has been implicated in obstructive sleep apnoea. Hyoglossus is able to depress the tongue through motor supply from CN XII. Definition. Its primary responsibility is anchoring the laryngeal skeleton to the hyoid bone. All rights reserved. Fig 1 – Position of the hyoid bone in the neck. It takes an anteroinferior route along the superior border of the digastric muscle. Hyoid bone, U-shaped bone situated at the root of the tongue in the front of the neck and between the lower jaw and the largest cartilage of the larynx, or voice box. The find out more about our cookies, click here. The hyoid bone has superior and inferior muscular attachments that keep it in place in the anterior region of the neck. It is therefore a significant post-mortem finding. – Each muscle was colored by … Hyoid bone in situ in a cadaver. It has therefore been suggested as a possible therapeutic point in the surgical management of the disease. The hyoepiglottic ligaments are one of several extrinsic ligaments of the larynx. The middle constrictor of the pharynx has several attachments. If you do not agree to the foregoing terms and conditions, you should not enter this site. Fibrous tissue connects the lesser cornua to the body of the hyoid bone. Moreover, the larynx position of Neanderthals was not a handicap to producing speech sounds. Our 3D anatomical model provides you with hands-on, interactive and valuable learning tool right here on your device. The bilaterally paired muscle lies between mylohyoid and genioglossus (base of the tongue). It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. A branch of the facial nerve provides motor innervation to the muscle that allows it to retract and elevate the hyoid bone during swallowing. Stylohyoid ligament – extends from the styloid process of … Unilateral contraction produces contralateral deviation of the tongue. Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. They act to support the position of the hyoid in the neck. Clinical Relevance: Fracture of the Hyoid Bone. They are also flattened horizontally. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. In this article, we shall look at the anatomical structure, muscular attachments and clinical relevance of the hyoid bone. It acts by protracting and elevating the hyoid during swallowing. The body of the hyoid bone (also with two ossification centres) follows shortly after in the perinatal (shortly before or after birth) period. The greater horn arises from the third arch, while the lesser horn originates from the second arch. Watch our video to find out why Kenhub video tutorials help thousands of anatomy students to understand anatomy. “I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” Indeed, it acts as a site of attachment for many muscles in the neck: There are three main ligaments that attach to the hyoid bone – stylohyoid, thyrohyoid and hyoepiglottic. Ventricles, meninges and blood vessels of the brain, Inferior fibers attach to the anterosuperior surface of the body of the hyoid bone, adjacent to the midline via a thin aponeurotic process, Intermediate fibers extend posteriorly to the posterior aspect of the tongue, Superior fibers traverse the entire ventral surface of the tongue from the base to its apex. Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver, Author: • The hyoid is well protected by the mandible and cervical spine, so fractures are relatively rare. Found an error? The medical information on this site is provided as an information resource only, and is not to beused or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes. Muscles that insert on the upper surface of the bone are known as suprahyoid muscles, while those attached to the lower surface are infrahyoid muscles. Sforza, Emilia et al. The hyoid bone is a 'U' shaped structure located in the anterior neck. The greater cornua (horns) extend from the lateral extremity of the body in a posterolateral direction. The bilateral ligaments are collections of fibrous tissue that are responsible for attaching the anterior and lateral aspects of the epiglottis to the body and greater cornu of the hyoid bone. There are also instances where each lesser cornu articulates with the ipsilateral greater cornu by way of a synovial joint that ossifies in later decades of life. Hyoglossus is a quadrilateral muscle originating from the anterior body of the hyoid bone and its greater cornu. The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone that is held in place by the strap muscles of the anterior triangle of the neck. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161.2 (2000): 347-352. The hyoid bone is present in many mammals. The hyoid bone is small, and it functions as an attachment point for many muscles involved in swallowing, jaw movements, and respiration. Sternohyoid is another strap muscle coursing from the manubrium sterni and medial end of clavicle to insert in the inferior surface of the hyoid bone.