прямы́х (G. They are also often added with preposition с, while form of noun appears to be related to the integer part rather than to the fraction: де́сять с че́твертью [Instr.] pl.) Female name is in 1st declension, but ending -ой is used for a family name in all oblique cases. Comparison forms are usual only for qualitative adjectives and adverbs. Russian lesson of the day Russian flashcards Russian verb conjugation Russian declension Our blog Our newsletter Russian words by category Having started in 2017, today we have 1248 Russian words divided into 53 categories. Русский язык. In the tables below, this behavior is indicated by the abbreviation N or G in the row corresponding to the accusative case. Likewise, there is a neo-vocative form for close relatives: мать – ма́ма – мам (mother – mommy – mom), оте́ц – па́па – пап (father – daddy – dad). masculine forms have zero ending, feminine singular forms have the ending -я, neuter singular forms have the ending -е, and plural forms have the ending -и. Many people also think that Georgian surnames on -ия like Данелия (Georgian: დანელია) shouldn't be declined since they are originally something like Russian possessive genitives. (00364g) Prepositional Case of Nouns. For nouns ending in -ья, -ье, or -ьё, using -ьи in the Prepositional (where endings of some of them are stressed) is usually erroneous, but in poetic speech it may be acceptable (as we replace -ии with -ьи for metric or rhyming purposes): Весь день она́ лежа́ла в забытьи́ (F. Tyutchev). Also, биллиа́рд (billiard) is a noun meaning a cue sport. Some words have an irregular plural form, but a few use suppletion, being substituted by a different root altogether.  Only numerals from 2 (двое) to 7 (семеро) are actively used nowadays, while 8 to 10 are seldom used and 11–13 are not normative; word о́ба (both) is also considered to be collective numeral. In Russian grammar they are called possessive pronouns притяжательные местоимения (compare with possessive adjectives like Peter's = петин above). Another method of indicating comparison uses analytical forms with adverbs бо́лее 'more' / ме́нее 'less' and са́мый 'most' / наибо́лее 'most' / наиме́нее 'least': до́брый 'kind' — бо́лее до́брый 'kinder' — са́мый до́брый 'the kindest'. the stem of these adjectives ends in a soft sign. Most borrowed words ending in Russian in э/е, и, о, у and stressed а are not declined: кафе, пальто (French: paletot), Дюма etc. In Russian grammar, the system of declension is elaborate and complex. There are three declension types of Russian adjectives: These are adjectives whose stem ends in a hard consonant. You will also learn in what situations you should use cardinal numbers. лисий fox's). Depending on the stress position, there are adjectives with a stressed ending which have masculine singular form ending in -ой (e.g. EMBED. Textbook Exercise 1-22. Unlike English, Russian uses the same form for a possessive adjective and the corresponding possessive pronoun. Introduction to the Genitive case. The table below represents the endings of such adjectives: View examples of adjectives with stem ending in -г, -к, -х declension, Adjectives with stem ending in -ж, -ш, -ч, -щ. The words for 50, 60, 70, 80, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 are unique for Russian, as they decline not only with ending in their end, but also with part of word in their middle (since they are originally composed from two words): Nom. sg.) pl.) Some person names also have versions for both males and females (Алекса́ндр – Алекса́ндра, Евге́ний – Евге́ния). The most recognized additional cases are locative (в лесу́, на мосту́, в крови́ — in the forest, on the bridge, in (the) blood), partitive (ча́ю, са́хару, коньяку́ — (some) tea, sugar, cognac), and several forms of vocative (Го́споди, Бо́же, о́тче — (oh) Lord, God, father). Historically, some of these irregularities come from older declensional patterns that have become mostly obsolete in modern Russian. маши́н (Gen.); cf. игрока́ (G. (0381g) Урок 1. три до́ма (3 houses; G. They are: The category of animacy is relevant in Russian nominal and adjectival declension. Краткий теоретический курс для школьников, "Значение Пушкина в развитии русского литературного языка", "The Morphology/Syntax Interface: Evidence from Possessive Adjectives in Slavonic", "The structure and use of collective numeral phrases in Slavic: Russian, Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, and Polish", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Russian_declension&oldid=989444621, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Georgian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Masculine and neutral nouns people, including common-gender (except presuming feminine group), Collective numerals are used to emphasize the cohesiveness of the group, while cardinal (, 8–10 are seldom used; in oblique cases is optional, The use of a direct object in the genitive instead of the accusative in negation signifies that the noun is indefinite, compare: ", The use of the numeral one sometimes signifies that the noun is indefinite, e.g. The word ми́нус (minus) declines if standalone, but does not for negative numbers: минус три гра́дуса – minus three degrees (wrong: *минуса три градуса); however: три минуса – three minuses. pl.) In modern editions of classical poetry some elements of this system are still used if they are important for rhyme or metrics. Recognizing Russian Names of Cities. Some nouns (such as borrowings from other languages, abbreviations, etc.) For "1 1/2" there is a special word полтора́ (feminine полторы́; in oblique cases полу́тора; requires Genitive): полтора́ я́блока – 3/2 apples. пятьдеся́т (50) – Gen. пяти́десяти etc. чьи? sg.) But: коли́чество ба́йтов (amount of bytes), изба́виться от ли́шних килогра́ммов (get rid of excess kilograms). The same endings apply for both genders. Russian grammar. Traditionally, full Russian name consists of a person name (и́мя – given name or first name), patronym (о́тчество – father's name as middle name) and a family name (фами́лия – surname or last name). For numbers above 1,000 Russian uses a modified short scale with the following loanwords: миллио́н (106, million; as for both long and short scales), миллиа́рд (109, milliard; as for long scale – an exception), триллио́н (1012, trillion), квадриллио́н (1015, quadrillion), квинтиллио́н (1018, quintillion), etc.